When fuel prices rise, people reduce other auto expenses in order to keep total costs (as a percentage of their incomes) constant. They may keep their cars a little longer, for example, or buy less luxurious cars.
Autos worked partly because people who owned autos were not dependent on the effectiveness or competence of public officials.
Economist Randal O’Toole explores the parallels between the visions of East German central planners and modern urban planners.
Expensive forms of transit such as exclusive busways and rail lines have done little to generate new riders, while their high cost has often forced transit agencies to cut back bus services.